This report is the fourth in a series of surveys that depict the status and trends of the elephant ivory markets in a particular region of the world. Previous surveys covered Africa (Martin and Stiles 2000), South and South East Asia (Martin and Stiles 2002) and East Asia (Martin and Stiles 2003). This report deals with five countries in Europe: Germany, the UK, France, Spain and Italy, in relative order of market scale. These countries were selected on the basis of the size of their economies, and thus buying power, and on informants’ reports in Africa and Asia of the principal European buyers of worked ivory in their regions. The surveys were carried out between April and November 2004, and the work was sponsored by Save the Elephants and Care for the Wild International.