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The Chinese government has completely closed down its domestic ivory market leading to the rise of African elephants in the wild.
In Kenya – for instance – the Chinese government has provided state of the art equipment like night goggles and camouflage gear, funding, vehicles for patrolling and tents for warmth at night.
Chinese President Xi Jinping made the announcement in September 2015, in a move that was widely celebrated by wildlife conservation organizations across the world. Since then, the Asian nation has taken actions to help reduce poaching and funded conservation efforts in several African countries.
Back in China, some charity organizations have been carrying out campaigns to educate the ordinary citizens on how illegal ivory trade in their country is threatening the African elephant.
As a consequence of these actions, prices of ivory have dropped at alarming rates in Hong Kong. According to undercover investigators from the Wildlife Justice Commission (WJC) – in 2015 raw ivory was priced at an average of US$1,322/kg, by October 2016 the price had dropped to $750/kg, and by February 2017 prices were as much as 50% lower overall, at $660/kg.
“Kenya stands on top since the closure of this market, poaching has significantly dropped between 2013 and 2016 as a result of this audacious move,” Julius Kimani, the acting Director General of – Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) said during an interview
Kimani revealed that 390 elephants were killed in Kenya in 2013 and the number dropped to 96 elephants and 14 rhinos in 2016.
“In 2017 nine rhinos and less than 60 elephants were killed, we are very happy and excited about this milestone, we are now checking to see whether traffickers will relocate to other elephant range states in the continent,” said Kimani.
According to Kimani there is a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in place between the Kenyan and the Chinese governments that will be formalized before June 2018.
“We believe that they will bring to us their advanced equipment like the ones used in surveillance. I am urging them to do a survey of our roads before assisting us with vehicles so that they can provide the models that are conducive to our terrain,” Kimani remarked
In Kenya where the population of elephants is estimated at 39,000, poaching of these iconic mammals has reached a historic low thanks to China’s technical and financial support.
From the beginning of 2018 China has also enforced a ban on commercial processing and sale of ivory products, ushering in a new era in the protection of Africa’s elephants whose population is estimated at 420,000.
The local legislative council at the government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passed and gazetted the Endangered Species of Animals and Plants (Amendment) Bill, also known as the Hong Kong Ivory Bill.
This Bill will help take forward a three-step plan to enhance regulations on import and re-export of ivory and elephant hunting trophies and to phase out the local ivory trade.
It also seeks to increase the penalties under the Protection of Endangered Species of Animals and Plants Ordinance (Cap. 586) to provide a stronger deterrent against the smuggling and illegal trading of endangered species.
In the past three years, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Mozambique, Angola, South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Uganda, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have been the leading source of ivory that is trafficked illegally to leading markets in Asia.
“We are very proud of the Chinese government in their move to close down its domestic market, we encourage other countries in the illegal business of poaching to follow suit and help protect our endangered species,” remarked Robert Godec, the outgoing US Ambassador to Kenya.
According to KWS, the government of China has started fulfilling its promise of helping Kenya to protect its endangered species.
“In January 2018, we received 100 tents and 30 vehicles from the Chinese government,” said Kimani.
He disclosed that the vehicles have already been deployed to the headquarters of the wildlife agency since they could not be dispatched to the poaching hotspot areas due to poor transport infrastructure.
“These vehicles are meant for tarmacked areas and most of our poaching hotspots have a rugged terrain and it is only land cruisers that can manage to penetrate,” Kimani remarked
He added that the tents have been distributed to various game reserves and are offering warmth to rangers who had previously grappled with harsh elements.
“These tents are facilitating smooth movement of the rangers since there is no permanent accommodation for them,” added Kimani.
In addition, the Chinese government has provided state of the art equipment including night goggles and – camouflage gear to enhance the capacity of Kenyan wildlife rangers to patrol parks and deter intrusion by poachers.
Concurrently, Chinese enterprises and charities based in Kenya have also rendered support to wildlife conservation initiatives that are contributing to a reduction in poaching of elephants.
One of them is Huang Hongxiang a Chinese an ivory trade investigator based in Africa. During an interview with a local television (NTV) in a program known as Wild Talk, he said that one of the things that have been contributing to poaching in Kenya is lack of knowledge.
“I know of many Chinese who used to buy ivory but after seeing documentaries on the poached elephants and photos of dead elephants, they stopped and changed completely,” Huang remarked.
He adds that ivory is not that expensive in Africa, and that has made it easy for the Chinese to trade. “China is doing a lot, in recent years a lot of campaigns and awareness have been going on,” said Huang.
Kenya has around 40,000 to 60,000 Chinese expatriates but only 0.1 per cent has been involved in the ivory trade business according to Huang.
Huang says that since he has been involved in the investigation business, his work has been easy since no one asks him a lot of questions. “No one believes that Chinese can be investigators, they always believe that we are all ivory buyers,” adds Huang.
Huang reiterates that as much as people believe that the Chinese are the poachers, this is not true since the people inside the reserves like the rangers are the ones aiding the poaching. “Women also engage in poaching activities,” said Huang.
Chinese NGOs are now working hand in hand with the government. “If we find many ways of documenting this business of poaching, more people will stop it completely,” adds Huang.
According to the latest report from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), overall elephant poaching in Africa has decreased for five years in a row.
Najib Balala, Kenya’s Cabinet Secretary for tourism and wildlife said during a memorial service in honor of the late last remaining northern male white rhino on March 31that China’s bold decision to ban ivory trade dealt a devastating blow to elephant poaching
This work was produced as a result of a grant provided by the Africa-China Reporting Project managed by the Journalism Department of the University of the Witwatersrand.