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In summer of 1930, Mathieu de Brunhoff, age 4, of Paris, France, suffered a headache. To distract Mathieu from the pain, and her older son Laurent from his brother’s whining, Cécile de Brunhoff, thought up a bedtime story.
Captivated by the little elephant’s story, Mathieu and Laurent shared it the following day with their father, Jean, a painter. To amuse his children, Jean produced a watercolor portrait of the elephant, complete with a green formal suit and black bowler hat. The elephant’s name? Babar.
Jean de Brunhoff released the first Babar book, Histoire de Babar a year later, and went on to publish four more before his death two years later. He left two other Babar stories unfinished. Laurent, then 13, completed his father’s proofs and has since illustrated and published more than 50 Babar books.
Babar has similarly delighted more than 10 million worldwide readers—though critics point to Brunhoff’s story as a cloaked endorsement of French colonialism. Nevertheless, several prominent creators followed Brunhoff’s lead and granted human characteristics to other fictional and cordial elephants. In 1940, Dr. Seuss’s Horton hatched the egg, and the next year Dumbo showed the world “the very things that hold you down are going to lift you up.”
These sympathetic mid-century portrayals mark a distinct moment of redirection in the evolution of human-elephant relations. Currently on exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History, not far from the famous Fenykovi elephant in the museum’s rotunda, Smithsonian Libraries has organized “Game Change: Elephants from Prey to Preservation,” a show that tracks this historic negotiation.
“To see [elephants] as the ecologically important beasts that they are, means they are not Babar,” says Marshall Jones of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, who spoke recently at a panel discussion on the occasion of the show’s opening. “There is still another evolutionary step we have to go through in our own understanding,”
While the cartoons Babar, Horton and Dumbo, are childlike, playful and fun, global human-elephant relations are serious fare.
“Could you imagine us tolerating, in West Virginia, 5,000 of an animal that . . . kills people?” Jones asks. “We wouldn’t tolerate that in this country, and yet [the people of Sri Lanka] do and they’re trying to achieve that balance.”
The search for balance in the human understanding of elephants dates back millenniums. While initially hunted for food and ivory, elephants later became a “living tank” for ancient militaries.
At that time, elephants were hunted for ivory or for sport by big game European and American hunters. Still big game hunters aided future conservation efforts in an unlikely way. They were among the first to recognize, and draw concern to, the decline in the elephant population.
The “first conservation president,” according to Mark Madison of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was President Theodore Roosevelt. During his presidency, Roosevelt protected close to 230 million acres of public land and founded the modern U.S. Forest Service.
In 1909, in partnership with the Smithsonian Institution, Roosevelt embarked on a year-long African hunting expedition with his 19-year-old son Hermit.
“It wasn’t seen as a conflict,” Madison says of Roosevelt’s hunting. Many conservationists of the time were also avid hunters. By 1913, the African elephant population, which once held at 26 million had dropped below ten million.
Just as the big game hunters of the 19th century engaged in unconvincing conservationist crusades, elephants began appearing in local American and European zoos and circus shows. Everyday folk were given the chance to observe elephants, outside the folklore found in books or spread by old war tales.
Perhaps the most famous of elephants introduced to 19th-century American audiences was Barnum and Bailey’s Jumbo. This 11-and-a-half-foot, six-and-a half-ton African elephant had previously stunned onlookers at London’s National Zoo. For roughly $2,000, a steal at the deals time, P.T. Barnum bought the strapping elephant who soon became the greatest act in Barnum and Bailey’s Greatest Show on Earth.
Elephants like Jumbo fascinated children from both the nations. The Brits began to liken anything excessively large as “Jumbo.” Perceptions of the creatures as gentle giants took shape as zoo-goers and circus-crowds encountered a tamed, genial and domesticated giant.
Throughout the mid-20th century, as mothers and fathers like Cecile de Brunhoff began to incorporate elephants into bedtime stories, followed by Dr. Seuss and Disney, generation after generation fell in love with the creatures.
Truly, these artistic representations had their finger on the pulse of changing conservationist attitudes. Humans in these texts were most often portrayed as the reason for the elephants’ pain. Cruel circus handlers imprisoned Mrs. Jumbo for protecting her son, Dumbo. Babar’s mother was killed by hunters. Horton was both nearly shot by hunters and caged by circus handlers.
Conservationists began to push for the preservation of biodiversity in the 1960s as conservation biology emerged as a leading scientific field. In 1973 the Endangered Species Act (ESA) was signed into law.
Asian elephants only number a tenth of the African elephant group. These 40,000 Asian elephants reside in difficult terrains and dense habitats, like Sri Lanka, that lend themselves to tenser human-elephant conflict.
The Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute’s Conservation Ecology Center partners with regional and local experts across Asia to track elephant movement and changes in human land-use. With this data, CEC and the regional experts are working to devise new land-use strategies to protect both humans and elephants.
These conservation biologists are not protecting elephants because of how caring and cuddly Babar and Dumbo appear on the watercolor pages of children’s stories. Neither are they solely motivated by the nightmarish prediction that their great-grandchildren will never see an elephant with their own eyes.
“Game Change: Elephants from Prey to Preservation,” featuring selections from the Russell E. Train Africana Collection, is on view at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. through February 1, 2020.