Elsevier. Hormones and Behavior 51 (2007) 346–354
Non-invasive endocrine methods enable investigation of the relationship between ecological variation and ovarian activity and how this impacts on demographic processes. The underlying physiological factors driving high variation in inter-calving intervals among multi-parous African elephants offer an interesting system for such an investigation. This study investigates the relationship between Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), an ecosystem surrogate measure of primary productivity, and fecal progestin concentrations among wild female elephants. Matched fecal samples and behavioral data on reproductive activity were collected from 37 focal individuals during the two-year study.